* for access to all the standard Ant filters. The second test uses the Spring MockMVC library to supply authentication and tests the home endpoint again. The given source Note: This property has been replaced by archiveAppendix. Note: This property has been replaced by archiveExtension. However, not all Zip readers support the Zip64 extensions. The Closure will be called with each line (stripped of line The RegularFile where the archive is constructed. More specifically, each file is transformed using Thus it can execute arbitrary code and access any Java library, build-specific Gradle DSL, and the Gradle API. Adds an exclude spec. The action can change Specifies source files or directories for a copy. This can be done like so: dependencies { compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: '*.jar… This method executes the given closure against the DependencyHandler for this project. the destination path of the file, filter the contents of the file, or exclude the file from the result entirely. Renames files based on a regular expression. Note: This property has been replaced by destinationDirectory. It’s equivalent to pom.xml for Maven (without all the horrible angle brackets — did I mention I was attacked by XML as a young developer and have never gotten over it?). If you take a look at the src/main/resources/application.yml file: You’ll notice that there are two properties that we want to fill in. So why not just use a more traditional static data structure like JSON, properties, or XML? In fact, typically, you override already defined task types. The authentication provider used by the project is Okta, a software-as-service identity management provider. The function will be called with a single parameter, the name of the file. The given closure is Go to API and select Authorization Servers. 2) Next, apply plugin, shockingly, applies plugins. The path is simply the destinationDirectory plus the archiveFileName. The Gradle command line is gradle. Gradle will then walk the directories on disk which are part of this archive in a reproducible order This strategy can be overridden for individual files by using CopySpec.eachFile(org.gradle.api.Action) or CopySpec.filesMatching(java.lang.String, org.gradle.api.Action). Directory of JARs. If you want to create an 'uber' (AKA 'fat') JAR, then you can use a task definition like this: Example 8. Again, for a small, simple build, this performance increase is probably not significant. You can have the same set of dependencies in a Maven project and a Gradle project, and end up with dependency problems in one and not in the other. This is equivalent to using eachFile() and selectively applying a configuration based on the This lambda is assigned to a variable. path is evaluated as per Project.files(java.lang.Object[]) . There are a TON of options. file must match at least one of the include patterns to be processed. The given closure is executed to configure the manifest. Generally speaking, a closure is a first-class function with a scope bound to it. Note: This property has been replaced by archiveFile. However, the real power comes because build.gradle is a Groovy script. If includes are provided, then a Build systems are used for executing intricate webs of dependencies compiling the project, as well as bundling the resource and metafiles into the final .war or .jar file. The value can be set with a case insensitive string of the enum value (e.g. If every line is in which case the original name will be used. patterns may be specified in a single call. Like the Copy task, they have a very open-ended ability to customize the process, which can be a huge help on projects that require a customized final product. These extend the basic capability of the Gradle-Groovy DSL framework: the java plugin is applied, along with Spring Boot and Spring dependency management. You could also have expressed a similar relationship using the task property finalizedBy. If excludes are not provided, then no files will be excluded. Adds an action to be applied to each file as it about to be copied into its destination. However, I prefer Gradle for a more complicated project. If you’d like to see more info, try adding the -i flag, like so: Testing with Spring is a whole tutorial in itself, so I’ll leave it at that. This means you should not enable this property if you are building JARs to be used with Java 6 and earlier runtimes. Coming from a strong object-oriented background, closures initially felt like wormholes being punched through the strict object-scope continuum, strangely connecting various parts of the object over space and time. This configuration method was called compile. Specifies the source files or directories for a copy and creates a child CopySpec. Open your build.gradle file and add the following at the end: This will demonstrate a little about how Gradle scripts work. Give the app a name. The Unix permissions to use for the target files. The given closure is executed to configure a CopySpec. Both Maven and Gradle systems are awesome to work with. The lambda is created with the offset variable encapsulated in the closure scope and returned. called with a FileCopyDetails as its parameter. 'exclude' for DuplicatesStrategy.EXCLUDE). Renames files based on a regular expression. Suffice to say just about anything can be a dependency: a local file, a directory of jars, another Gradle project, etc…, and dependencies can be configured to do things like exclude certain sub-dependencies. This is where the task.doLast {} block gets executed, and thus you see “Howdy” printed in the output. Renames a source file. The Unix permissions to use for the target directories. For example, Gradle defines a Copy task that copies files from one place to another. Whether the zip can contain more than 65535 files and/or support files greater than 4GB in size. Actions are executed in the order The task below transforms each copies file and excludes .DS_Store files. It’s easy. If excludes are provided, then files must not match A local Maven cache can be configured as a repository using mavenLocal(). permissions are preserved. 4) The repositories block defines where the build script will look for dependencies. Create a test file: src/test/java/com/okta/springbootgradle/HelloControllerTest.java: This test file has three tests. The Spring Boot plugin adds the bootRun task, which runs the Spring Boot application. Gradle can be installed with homebrew, SDKMAN, or via download. If includes are provided, then a Generally, a task is run like this: gradle taskName otherTaskName, or using the wrapper: ./gradlew taskName otherTaskName. This example is a bit contrived but demonstrates the two basic properties of lambdas. 5) Finally, the project dependencies are defined. Use the OIDC Debugger to generate a token for your OIDC application. There are more ways to define dependencies than is useful for the scope of this article. The function should return a new target name. The first test checks the home endpoint to ensure that a request that does not supply authentication fails with an unauthorized error. 3. build.gradle. Defaults to UTF-8. The Gradle docs for the Task API are a great reference. You can think of the build.gradle file as simply a configuration file that Gradle reads before executing whatever tasks it was assigned by the shell command that called it. Published at DZone with permission of Andrew Hughes, DZone MVB. I’ve worked on several big complicated Java/Groovy projects that would’ve been incomplete without Gradle. Look at the table for the default authorization server and the Issuer URI value. Take the dependencies section of the build.gradle file: Without the Groovy DSL shorthand, this is actually: Everything in the brackets is actually a closure passed to the project.dependencies() method. The best way to do this is with a gradle.properties file. However, you’ll notice that in a lot of places online; you’ll see ./gradlew or gradlew.bat. doLast is a misnomer for that block; what it really means is something like “task action”, while the outer block is task setup and configuration. See the original article here. Uses java.util.regex type of regular expressions. You’ll be using Okta as an OAuth/OIDC (OpenID Connect) provider. The next step is to execute any tasks specified on the command line, in our case thehowdy task. One last point about tasks: in practice, you rarely write custom tasks to say things like “Howdy Partner” (hard to believe, I know). Filter properties may be specified using groovy map syntax. This method may be called multiple times to append new patterns and multiple Add the following line somewhere in your build.gradle file after the definition of the two custom tasks. Configure the FileCopyDetails for each file whose path does not match any of the specified Defaults to UTF-8. permissions are preserved. Copy the access token, open a terminal, and store it in a shell variable like this: The Spring Boot app defines one controller: HelloController.java: There are two endpoints. $property or ${property} in the file. The Java version of a closure is called a lambda. If includes are not provided, then all files in this container will be included. HTTPie: You’re going to use a great command-line utility to run a few HTTP requests from the command line. The path can be relative to the build file. Adds a content filter based on the provided closure. Adds the given specs as a child of this spec. would map the file 'style_OEM_BLUE_.css' to 'style.css'. Further, when you define custom tasks and properties (not found in the Gradle API), ordering matters because these symbols will not be pre-defined and as such must be defined in the build script before you can use them. Roughly speaking, it’s a configuration script that calls a series of closures (think functions, more in a bit on this) that define configuration options. Add the following closure to the bottom of the build.gradle file: This configures the Java task to expand the project properties into the resource files. Just a quick word about Groovy. Note: The first time you log in, you’ll need to click the Admin button to get to the developer console. Example: Adds an ANT style exclude pattern. The task I override the most in Gradle Jar or War are the tasks responsible for packaging the .jar and .war files for final distribution. However, in this tutorial, since it’s a tutorial about Gradle, you might go ahead and install it. Specifies the destination directory *inside* the archive for the files. Here’s an example that copies docs into the build target: The real power of Groovy and Gradle comes in when you realize that because of the build.gradle file is actually a Groovy script, you can essentially execute arbitrary code to filter and transform these files if you need to. If includes are not provided, then all files in this container will be included. Star 0 Fork 0; Star Code Revisions 1. You looked at the sample build.gradle file in the tutorial project and saw how a typical build is configured. This is helpful if a team wants to coordinate builds between projects but doesn’t want to actually tie the project build files together. metadataCharset: The character set used to encode JAR metadata like file names. Further, a new lambda can be created with a new offset variable encapsulated in a separate scope and assigned to a different variable. Embed Embed this gist in your website. Where path is a directory path on your filesystem and local_dependency.jar is the name of your local JAR file. Create a gradle.properties file in the project root: You need to fill in the two values. This tutorial requires at least Java 1.8. And there’s more! For example, say we wanted to exclude the Log4j dependency from the Okta Spring Boot Starter, we could do this: Or say we wanted to include all the files in the libs directory as dependencies: The full notation is documented on the Gradle docs site for the DependencyHandler and in the Gradle docs for the Java plugin. Include org.apache.tools.ant.filters. In the closure, or lambda function, implementation is defined in the getTheLambda(int offset) method. Adds an ANT style include pattern. However, it also adds a ton of new features: optional typing, functional programming, runtime flexibility, and lots of meta-programming stuff. As promised, the Okta blog has tons of great tutorials if you’d like to learn more about Spring Boot and Java: Get Groovy with Gradle was originally published on the Okta Developer Blog on September 03, 2019. It adds the following files to your project: The gradlew and gradlew.bat are execution scripts for Linux/OSX and Window (respectively). You can change this property but it is not recommended as JVMs expect JAR metadata to be encoded using UTF-8 . In this tutorial, I’ll cover everything you ever wanted to know about building a Java application with Gradle. You need to make a few changes to the Spring Boot app. These were introduced into Java with version 1.8. Although it’s not obvious from the controller file itself, the / endpoint requires authentication and the /allow-anonymous endpoint does not. The destination is evaluated as per Project.file(java.lang.Object). See below. Note: This property has been replaced by archiveFileName. In this tutorial, you learned the basics of the Gradle build system. If every line is If you don’t already have it installed, head over to their website and install it. If excludes are not provided, then no files will be excluded. This is equivalent to using eachFile() and selectively applying a configuration based on the file's path. It almost looks like JSON or a property file, and while that’s technically very wrong under the hood, it’s not that far off as a starting point. The path where the archive is constructed. It's also possible to add a directory of jars to compile. You can also check out the final state of the project on the GitHub page on the master branch. Files It is where the build is configured. Add a second custom task to the build.gradle file: What if you want one custom task to depend on another? FileTreeElement as its parameter. You could probably launch the space shuttle with a Gradle file. : 'unknown'} or ${classpath*.name.join(' ')}. implementation() defines a dependency required at compile time. 3) Next, some standard properties are applied to the build. any exclude pattern to be processed. in which case the original name will be used. Next, the tutorial dove into the world of closures and saw how they are used in the Gradle DSL to create configuration blocks. Further, it provides a build cache and a build daemon that make repeated builds more performant. The project object is an instance of the Project class, the main API parent class for the build. You can also include arbitrary Groovy code in the If you replace the dependsOn line with: You get the same output. will actually be applied. These days, it’s a lot more common: Every function in JavaScript is a closure. The closure should return a String object with a new target name. It is much simpler to extend and customize a Gradle build than to write a Maven plugin and customize build steps. The last test checks the /allow-anonymous endpoint. In this quick article, we'll cover creating a “fat jar” in Gradle. I would never, ever condone this, but if you need to run a build and want to skip the tests, you can use: gradle build -x test. It also greatly cleaned up a lot of Java’s wordy, ceremony code. Just for fun. null means that existing Specifies the source files or directories for a copy and creates a child CopySourceSpec. It also ensures that people can run the build even if they do not have Gradle installed. Creating a Java uber or fat JAR. Our build.gradle file uses two configurations: implementation and testImplementation. The tutorial then showed you how to build and run a simple Spring Boot project using Gradle, and how to define and run a few tests using Spring and Gradle. This declares dependencies provided at runtime that do not need to be compiled against. The order of the standard, pre-defined closures doesn’t matter, since most build.gradle files only define dependencies, set project properties, and use predefined tasks, the order of the elements in the file doesn’t matter. For the purposes of this tutorial, I’ve written a simple sample project. The Java plugin adds a dozen tasks, including: clean, compile, test, jar, and uploadArchives. Tells if empty target directories will be included in the copy. This is equivalent to using eachFile() and selectively applying a configuration based on the file's path. This method may be called multiple times to append new specs. This comes from the example project that just downloaded. that do not match the source regular expression will be copied with the original name. The function may return null, endings) and should return a String to replace the line or null to remove the line. Using Gradle with the full backing of Kotlin and Groovy, you can create powerful and complicated scripts (this can be a good thing and a bad thing). Because these overloaded functions can accept closure code blocks as well, allowing for deep customization. First of all we have to add java plugin to the build script because it provides tasks to compile Java source code, run unit tests, create Javadoc and create a JAR file.