Hoover bestritt öffentlich die Existenz solcher Netzwerke,[23] behinderte deren Verfolgung intern[24] und machte auch seinen weitreichenden Einfluss auf Präsidenten, Generalstaatsanwälte und Kongressmitglieder in dieser Richtung geltend.[25]. [86], Hoover remained director of the FBI until he died of a heart attack in his Washington home, on May 2, 1972,[87] whereupon Operational Command of the Bureau was passed onto Associate Director Clyde Tolson. [44] Hoover created the "Top Hoodlum Program" and went after the syndicate's top bosses throughout the country. in 1917 from the same university. Freeh | In a 1978 interview, she said: "Some of my best friends are homosexual: Everybody knew about J. Edgar Hoover, but he was the best chief the FBI ever had."[118]. Ivan R. Dee. Spätestens ab 1935 besaß er in den USA ein kaum zu beschädigendes hohes Ansehen. Er erhielt 1946 die Medal for Merit, damals die höchste zivile Auszeichnung der USA. [70][71] FBI records show that J. Edgar Hoover personally communicated these insinuations to President Johnson. [16] Hoover vergrößerte die Organisation und deren Machtbereich während seiner langen Amtszeit enorm.[17]. Diese Aktenzeichen – eigentümliche Zahlen- und Buchstabencodes – waren so zusammengesetzt, dass sie nur für ihn selbst einen Sinn ergaben, auf andere Personen hingegen nur als kryptische „Buchstabensalate“ wirkten und dementsprechend für diese undurchschaubar waren. He was appointed director of the Bureau of Investigation – the FBI's predecessor – in 1924 and was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director for another 37 years until his death in 1972 at the age of 77. Webster | Because of the controversial nature of Hoover's legacy, there have been periodic proposals to rename it by legislation proposed by both Republicans and Democrats in the House and Senate. Mitunter wurde Hoover deswegen auch als der mächtigste Mann der Vereinigten Staaten bezeichnet. ", "J. Edgar Hoover: Gay marriage role model? The library was a half mile from his house. [58] Some authors have charged that COINTELPRO methods also included inciting violence and arranging murders. Hoover is also credited with establishing and expanding a national blacklist, referred to as the FBI Index or Index List, renamed in 2001 as the Terrorist Screening Database which the FBI still compiles and manages. The FBI is tending in that direction. From the Secret Files of J. Edgar Hoover. At that time Cosa Nostra's control of the Syndicate's many branches operating criminal activities throughout North America was heavily reported in popular newspapers and magazines. [2], Nach dem Abschluss des Studiums begann J. Edgar Hoover 1917 für das US-Justizministerium zu arbeiten. Mai 1924 der sechste Direktor des Bureau of Investigation (BOI) und vom 23. Hoovers wichtigstes Ziel war in den ersten Jahren zunächst die Professionalisierung des BOI. Bureau of Investigation (1908–1935): [91] President Nixon delivered another eulogy at the funeral service in the National Presbyterian Church, and called Hoover "one of the Giants, [whose] long life brimmed over with magnificent achievement and dedicated service to this country which he loved so well". [19] Hoover professionalisierte auch die Public-Relations-Sparte des Bureaus, seit den frühen 1930ern sponserte die heutige External Affairs Division eine Palette von Gimmicks und Werbeartikeln der „G-Men“, die von Kaugummikarten, FBI-Badges, Radiosendungen bis hin zur Fernsehserie The F.B.I. Früh erkannte er die Bedeutung der Massenmedien, die er durch eine Mischung von Zwangsmaßnahmen und medienwirksam inszenierten Festnahmen von bekannten Gangstern geschickt für seine Ziele einsetzte. [52][53], In 1946, Attorney General Tom C. Clark authorized Hoover to compile a list of potentially disloyal Americans who might be detained during a wartime national emergency. [49], During this time period President Franklin D. Roosevelt, out of concern over Nazi agents in the United States, gave "qualified permission" to wiretap persons "suspected ... [of] subversive activities". Mai 1972 in Washington, D.C., im Schlaf an Herzversagen. "[24], In 1920, Edgar Hoover was initiated[25] at D.C.'s Federal Lodge No. "[118], Hack further reported that, during the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover attended social events with Lela Rogers, the divorced mother of dancer and actress Ginger Rogers, so often that many of their mutual friends assumed the pair would eventually marry. ISBN 978-0-452-26904-0. [2] Von 1918 bis zu seinem Tod war Helen Gandy seine persönliche Assistentin. Hoover hat zeit seines Lebens und darüber hinaus die Öffentlichkeit polarisiert. A raid on a summer lodge in Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin, called "Little Bohemia," left a Bureau agent and a civilian bystander dead and others wounded; all the gangsters escaped. [59][60], This program remained in place until it was exposed to the public in 1971, after the burglary by a group of eight activists of many internal documents from an office in Media, Pennsylvania, whereupon COINTELPRO became the cause of some of the harshest criticism of Hoover and the FBI. [9] Insbesondere in Middle America wurde Hoover als „Halbgott“ gehandelt. He frequently fired Bureau agents, singling out those he thought "looked stupid like truck drivers," or whom he considered "pinheads. [118], Hoover bequeathed his estate to Tolson, who moved into Hoover's house after Hoover died. He went on to add, in 1941, that the United States Attorney General had to be informed of its use in each case. [64], The treatment of Martin Luther King Jr. and actress Jean Seberg are two examples: Jacqueline Kennedy recalled that Hoover told President John F. Kennedy that King had tried to arrange a sex party while in the capital for the March on Washington and that Hoover told Robert F. Kennedy that King had made derogatory comments during the President's funeral. [82], In 1964, Hoover's FBI investigated Jack Valenti, a special assistant and confidant of President Lyndon Johnson. ISBN 978-0-8371-5755-9. The experience shaped both Hoover and the creation of the FBI profiles; as Hoover noted in a 1951 letter: "This job ... trained me in the value of collating material. After The Washington Post broke a story in January 1975, Kelley searched and found them in his outer office. Gentry, Curt (1991). Hoover amassed significant power by collecting files containing large amounts of compromising and potentially embarrassing information on many powerful people, especially politicians. In 1950, at the outbreak of the Korean War, Hoover submitted a plan to President Truman to suspend the writ of habeas corpus and detain 12,000 Americans suspected of disloyalty. [35] Die Palmer Raids, bei denen Hoover erstmals eine zentrale Rolle spielte, werden heute als erster Schritt in einen Überwachungsstaat interpretiert. [4], William G. Hundley, a Justice Department prosecutor, said Hoover may have inadvertently kept alive the concern over communist infiltration into the government, quipping that Hoover's "informants were nearly the only ones that paid the party dues. [45][46], Hoover was concerned about what he claimed was subversion, and under his leadership, the FBI investigated tens of thousands of suspected subversives and radicals. [22], Die enormen Anstrengungen bei der Suche und Verfolgung von Subversiven und Radikalen sorgten für eine Vernachlässigung der polizeilichen Ermittlungsarbeit des FBI. "[33][page needed] He also relocated agents who had displeased him to career-ending assignments and locations. Hoover did not have a birth certificate filed upon his birth, although it was required in 1895 in Washington. Gary May, The Informant: The FBI, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Murder of Viola Luzzo, Yale University Press, 2005. Many writers believe Hoover's denial of the Mafia's existence and his failure to use the full force of the FBI to investigate it were due to Mafia gangsters Meyer Lansky and Frank Costello possession of embarrassing photographs of Hoover in the company of his protégé, FBI Deputy Director Clyde Tolson. These established that espionage was being carried out. Gid Powers, Richard (1986). It presents the members of the Japanese delegation, the Japanese ambassador, and the secretary of state, with J. Edgar Hoover in the background adjacent to a police officer. [82] However, Summers noted that Hoover's friend, actress and singer Ethel Merman, knew of his sexual orientation. Initially, the Bureau suffered some embarrassing foul-ups, in particular with Dillinger and his conspirators. McCabe | Dies wurde jedoch nicht durchgeführt. [48] In the Quirin affair, during World War II, German U-boats set two small groups of Nazi agents ashore in Florida and Long Island to cause acts of sabotage within the country. No Left Turns: The FBI in Peace & War. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 31. [101] In 1998, Democrat Senator Harry Reid sponsored an amendment to strip Hoover's name from the building, stating that "J. Edgar Hoover's name on the FBI building is a stain on the building. [8], Hoover was born in a house on the present site of Capitol Hill United Methodist Church, located on Seward Square near Eastern Market in Washington's Capitol Hill neighborhood. [28], In 1921, Hoover rose in the Bureau of Investigation to deputy head and, in 1924, the Attorney General made him the acting director. ISBN 978-1-57806-537-0. Als dies aufgedeckt wurde, führte der Daugherty-Burns-Skandal zu einem Ansehensverlust des BOI. Sessions | Als erstem ungewählten Staatsbediensteten und als 22. [34] Hoover erlangte einen Platz in der US-amerikanischen Popkultur als „der Telefonverwanzer, der Schlafzimmerabhörer, der Erpresser, der Skandalhändler, der Rassist, der Charaktermörder, der Vergifter des Quells der intellektuellen und politischen Freiheit“. [72][73], Hoover also personally intervened to prevent federal prosecutions against the Ku Klux Klan members responsible for the terrorist bombing attack against the 16th Street Baptist Church. During the 1930s, Hoover persistently denied the existence of organized crime, despite numerous gangland shootings as Mafia groups struggled for control of the lucrative profits deriving from illegal alcohol sales during Prohibition, and later for control of prostitution, illegal drugs and other criminal enterprizes. [5], John Edgar Hoover was born on New Year's Day 1895 in Washington, D.C., to Anna Marie (née Scheitlin; 1860–1938), who was of Swiss-German descent, and Dickerson Naylor Hoover (1856–1921), chief of the printing division of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, formerly a plate maker for the same organization. [102], Hoover's practice of violating civil liberties for the sake of national security has been questioned in reference to recent national surveillance programs. Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover. Temple University Press. Seine enge Beziehung zu seinem Stellvertreter Clyde Tolson führte zu Gerüchten, Hoover sei homosexuell, diese blieben jedoch unbestätigt. Hoover | The Japanese delegation was greeted at the Washington Union (train) Station by U.S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson and the Japanese Ambassador Katsuji Debuchi. Schott, Joseph L. (1975). Summers, Anthony (2003). Georg Bühler Nachfolger Briefmarken-Auktionen GmbH Worldwide Public Auction - September 4, 2020 Burda Auction, s.r.o. Stove, Robert J. Although Hoover built the reputation of the FBI arresting bank robbers in the 1930s, his main interest had always been Communist subversion, and during the Cold War he was able to focus the FBI's attention on these investigations. [12], Hoovers fast völlige Kontrolle des FBI wird seinen Manipulationstaktiken zugeschrieben; Hoover band Personen durch kleine Gefälligkeiten an sich – zum Beispiel übernahmen FBI-Agenten die Organisation und Kosten der Reisen von US-Kongressabgeordneten – und spielte der Presse Informationen zu, die dem FBI und ihm selbst zur Glorifizierung gereichten. (Summers, 2011). Charles, Douglas (2007). Carroll & Graf. The Unsleeping Eye: Secret Police and Their Victims. According to critics, Hoover tended to exaggerate the dangers of these alleged subversives and many times overstepped his bounds in his pursuit of eliminating that perceived threat. Hoover's maternal great-uncle, John Hitz, was a Swiss honorary consul general to the United States. It gave me an excellent foundation for my work in the FBI where it has been necessary to collate information and evidence. According to Summers, organized crime figures Meyer Lansky and Frank Costello obtained photos of Hoover's alleged homosexual activity with Tolson and used them to ensure that the FBI did not target their illegal activities. The HSCA further reported that Hoover's FBI was deficient in its sharing of information with other agencies and departments.[95]. [114][42] Still other scholars have reported the rumors without expressing an opinion. Hoover kept the intercepts – America's greatest counterintelligence secret – in a locked safe in his office. He was found to have exceeded the jurisdiction of the FBI,[2] and to have used the FBI to harass political dissenters and activists, to amass secret files on political leaders,[3] and to collect evidence using illegal methods. Although the pamphlets are in many different languages, about 33,000 are … https://www.factinate.com/people/32-top-secret-facts-j-edgar-hoover On May 3, 1972, Nixon appointed L. Patrick Gray – a Justice Department official with no FBI experience – as Acting Director of the FBI, with W. Mark Felt becoming Associate Director. University Press of Mississippi. "[47], The FBI investigated rings of German saboteurs and spies starting in the late 1930s, and had primary responsibility for counter-espionage. ISBN 9780393343502.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) - Total pages: 848, Hack, Richard (2007), Puppetmaster: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover, Phoenix Books, ISBN 978-1-59777-512-0. The two teams were apprehended after one of the agents contacted the FBI and told them everything - he was also charged, and convicted. 1956 institutionalisierte Hoover mit COINTELPRO ein Programm zur Verfolgung (vermeintlicher) Kommunisten.